The Feds: 6 of America’s Top Law Enforcement Agencies

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Photo courtesy of vice.com.

The United States is a federal republic. Simply put, this means that Americans are governed by elected officials at both a federal and state level. And, to a lesser extent, a local level.

Federal law enforcement agencies exist for one purpose. And that is – to enforce the laws enacted by the federal government.  Here’s a brief overview of America’s top 6 federal law enforcement agencies:

Drug Enforcement Administration

Established in 1973, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed for the purpose of coordinating and consolidating the federal government’s drug control efforts.

Due to the booming international drug trade in the 1960’s and 70’s, the United States yearned for a single federal agency that would strictly focus on enforcing federal drug laws. And that’s what the DEA is – a singular federal agency that’s mandated with combatting drug smuggling, and use, within the United States.

The DEA’s formation was a consolidation of several then-existing federal agencies, such as the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement.  Currently, the DEA is the lead agency for the domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act. And, it is primarily responsible for pursuing and coordinating drug investigations – both at home and abroad.

United States Customs and Border Protection

The US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is one of the largest law enforcement entities in the world, employing over 60,000 people. The CBP has one primary mission. And that is – to the keep terrorists and their weapons out of America. The agency’s other mission is the facilitation of lawful international trade and travel.

Responsible for enforcing hundreds of federal laws at America’s borders, the men and women of CBP greet roughly one million visitors a day. Also, in a single day, the CBP arrests more than 1,100 people, screens more than 67,000 cargo containers and seizes almost 6 tons of illegal drugs. Additionally, the CBP facilitates an average of $3 trillion in lawful international trade.

United States Marshals Service

Created under the Judiciary Act by the First Congress and signed into law by President George Washington, the United States Marshalls Service (USMS) was formed in 1789. At its genesis, the USMS’ primary role was to execute all lawful United States warrants issued by the federal courts. Essentially, the USMS was created to assist federal courts with law enforcement duties.

Currently operating under the supervision of the Department of Justice, the USMS is America’s oldest law enforcement agency. Today, the USMS has several key functions: federal prisoner transport, protecting  officers of the court and fugitive recovery operations. The USMS handles all federal arrest warrants, and operates the federal Witness Protection Program.

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Photo courtesy of csgjusticecenter.org.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) was officially formed in 1972. Prior to that time, the ATF was a division of the IRS due to the ATF’s role in collecting federal revenue from the sale of alcohol, tobacco and guns.  In 2001, the ATF was moved from the Treasury Department to the Justice Department, and it was renamed the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

The ATF has numerous tasks, which include the enforcement of federal laws involving the manufacture, use and possession of guns and explosives. They also investigate the illegal trafficking of tobacco and alcohol. The agency works closely with local law enforcement in regulating the interstate sale and transportation of ammunition, firearms and explosives.

Also, the ATF is heavily involved in the investigation of arson and bombings. And, in fact, they operate a highly sophisticated fire research laboratory in Maryland, where acts of criminal arson are reconstructed.

United States Secret Service

Formed in 1865 solely for the purpose of combatting counterfeit US currency, the United States Secret Service now has a myriad of investigative and protection responsibilities. Spanning 150 worldwide offices, the Secret Service is mandated with protecting the President, Vice President, their families, and several other key American leaders.

The agency is also tasked with enforcing and investigating financial crimes, such as bank fraud, identity theft, counterfeiting US currency and cybercrimes.  Prior to 2003, the Secret Service was under the control of the Treasury Department, but has since been reassigned to the Department of Homeland Security.

Federal Bureau of Investigation  

Last but not least – the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Known for being on the cutting-edge of forensic technology, and innovative investigative techniques, the FBI is America’s principal law enforcement agency.

Established as the Bureau of Investigation in 1908, and later changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935, the FBI is headquartered at the J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington, D.C.  In addition to law enforcement, the FBI is mandated with domestic intelligence gathering, and national security.  Although the FBI is under the control of the Department of Justice, it reports to both the Attorney General (head of DOJ) and the Director of National Intelligence (President’s Cabinet).

The FBI is America’s leading domestic counterintelligence, counter-terrorism and criminal investigation organization. Whereas the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has no law enforcement authority and focuses on international intelligence work, the FBI focuses its intelligence work on the domestic front, while possessing the authority to arrest.

Currently, the FBI maintains 56 field offices in major American cities, while also maintaining more than 400 smaller offices in lesser cities.

Maintaining law and order in such a complex and dangerous world is no easy task. The men and women who work for these agencies work tirelessly to ensure America is kept safe from both domestic and foreign threats. Is there a federal law enforcement agency that you find particularly interesting?

***

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DEAD COLD, An Emily Stone Thriller

DeadCold

Here are some recent Reviews of DEAD COLD:

“Real and Vivid. I liked the way that Jennifer Chase wove her tale. Characterization was huge in this novel. The characters were all very well developed and had their own motivations and faults. It made them seem more real to me as the reader. I also really liked the flow of this novel. “ ~ Texas Book Nook

“Dead Cold is not for those with weak hearts or nervous dispositions. Every page will have your heart pumping so much you’ll feel like you’re running a marathon. The story gets off to a cracking start in the prologue with high speed action from the first line.” ~ Darryl Greer for Readers’ Favorite

“Reading a Jennifer Chase novel and especially these Emily Stone novels reminds me of when James Patterson was at the top of his game. Jennifer’s writing has that same elusive quality and it makes for brilliant novels. Emily’s character is awesome and Dead Cold is not only my favorite novel in the series but also has the best conceived plot. Emily’s character was made for the big screen, I hope she makes it there because films of these books would be great.” ~ Amazon Reviewer

“Dead Cold is its own creature with a gritty sense of reality that makes it feel wholly authentic. Given Chase’s qualifications in serial crime and criminal profiling this shouldn’t come as a surprise and here she uses that knowledge too but as good as the characters and dialogue are, Dead Cold is at its best when it focuses on twisted nature of Stone’s latest assignment and its consequences” ~Book Viral

“Wow, this one really delivers in many areas. It is a thrilling novel with teeth. Yes, it took a bit of catching up to understand what was going on,  but once in the heart of it, Jennifer Chase has the reader hooked. As far as characters, plot, and flow, everything was very well developed and smooth.” ~ On A Reading Bender

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Influential Minds: 6 Masters of Criminology

Drawing on philosophy, sociology, psychology and anthropology, criminologists examine the origins, nature and control of criminal behavior.

Over the centuries, the field of criminology has been influenced by some of the most gifted minds the world has ever known. Here’s six of the most gifted contributors –

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Photo courtesy of critical-theory.com.

Jeremy Bentham

An 18th Century British philosopher, social reformer and criminal jurist, Jeremy Bentham is credited as the founder of modern utilitarianism; a belief that actions are inherently “right” if such actions benefit a majority of society.

Bentham made significant contributions to the advancement of criminology, including his efforts to decriminalize homosexual acts, as well as abolish slavery, the death penalty and all forms of physical punishment.

He believed that all people are entitled to a plethora of individual legal rights, but he was opposed to the idea of “natural rights” or so-called God-given rights. Bentham favored a strong separation of church and state, which is evident in his position against “natural law.” Bentham was also an early advocate of animal rights.

Bentham was strongly in favor of education “for all” and, upon his death, he requested that his body be dissected for educational purposes. He further requested that after the dissection, that his body be permanently preserved and placed on display. His body is currently on display at University College London.

Cesare Beccaria

An Italian criminologist, philosopher, and politician, Cesare Beccaria is widely considered to be one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment (1685-1815).  His most famous work, the renowned treatise – On Crimes and Punishments ­–  condemns torture and the death penalty, and is regarded as the founding work in field of penology.

Many historians attribute Beccaria as the founding father of modern criminal law, and as the founder of criminal justice. One of Beccaria’s primary ideologies was the belief that any punishment must be close in time to the criminal action, in order to maximize the deterrence value of the punishment.  To that end, Beccaria believed that if the crime and punishment occur close in time, then the offender’s mind will make a clear connection between “crime” and the resultant  “punishment.”

It is believed that Beccaria’s work and ideas had a significant influence on America’s Founding Fathers.

Alexandre Lacassagne

Born in the mid-1800’s, Alexandre Lacassagne was a French criminologist and physician. He was the founder of his own school of criminology, which was based in Lyon, France.

Lacassagne was a founding member in the disciplines of criminal anthropology and medical jurisprudence. He was influential in the field of toxicology, with a particular expertise on analyzing bullet markings and blood spatter patterns.

In addition to his primary pursuits, Lacassagne had a strong interest in the fields of sociology and psychology, and their relationship to a person’s criminal propensity. He believed that each individual had a unique biological predisposition. And that such disposition coupled with a person’s social environment were the primary factors in understanding the motivation behind an individual’s criminal behavior.

Lacassagne was a proponent of the death penalty, believing that some criminals could not be redeemed.

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Photo courtesy of famouspsychologists.com.

Hans Eysenck

A 20th Century, German-born British psychologist, Hans Eysenck spent his career investigating, analyzing and understanding the varying types of  human personalities and individual intelligence. As a professor of psychology at the renowned Kings College London, Eysenck was instrumental in the advancement  of humane treatment for those who suffered from mental illness.

Eysenck’s work in developing personality types was so groundbreaking that  – at the time of his death – he had become the most frequently cited psychologist in peer-reviewed science journals. His theories concerning one’s personality and intelligence, led to many advancements in understanding  what types of people commit crimes.

In his lifetime, Eysenck published approximately 80 books and over 1,600 journal articles.

Enrico Ferri

Italian criminologist and socialist Enrico Ferri studied at the Italian School of Criminology, and focused his studies on the relationship between criminal behavior and a person’s socio-economic background. Ferri’s book – Criminal Sociology –  served as the basis for the development of Argentina’s penal code in 1921.

Ferri rejected the prevailing, contemporary idea that a person’s biological characteristics played an important role in the motivations behind criminal behavior. Rather, he believed that a person’s psychological state had a much more direct impact on criminal impulses.

He believed that a criminal’s psychological makeup was essentially comprised of that person’s inability to reject criminal tendencies and temptations. And that criminals had an ill-balanced impulsiveness that was akin to that of a child.

Robert D. Hare

Canadian criminal psychologist Robert D. Hare has spent a lifetime interacting with, and assessing, psychopaths. Prior to earning his PhD, Hare spent some time working for the British Columbia prison system, a field in which he had no prior experience. Hare often spoke about his early days working at the prisons. Specifically, he recalled how the prisoners took advantage of his inexperience by manipulating him.

After earning his Ph.D., Hare became a professor at the University of British Columbia, where he would spend the next 30-plus years teaching and studying psychopaths. Hare was often baffled as to why some prisoners would not change their behavior despite the strict punishments they would often receive. He concluded that these criminals were psychopaths, and that they are not deterred by prison or any form of punishment.

Hare was often taken aback at how charming and personable psychopaths were, even though they have – and are capable of – committing vicious acts of violence. After spending almost 50 years studying them, Hare is renowned as a foremost expert in understanding the mind of the psychopath.

These criminologists, who span centuries and continents, are truly fascinating individuals. Do you know of any other highly influential pioneers in the field of criminology that belong on this list?

***

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Books: Compulsion  Dead Game  Dark Mind Dead Burn Dark Pursuit

Silent Partner  Body of the Crime Screenwriting

***

 JUST RELEASED! GRAB A COPY FOR ONLY 99CENTS DURING THE PROMOTIONAL BLOG TOUR!

DEAD COLD, An Emily Stone Thriller

DeadCold

Here are some recent Reviews of DEAD COLD:

“Real and Vivid. I liked the way that Jennifer Chase wove her tale. Characterization was huge in this novel. The characters were all very well developed and had their own motivations and faults. It made them seem more real to me as the reader. I also really liked the flow of this novel. “ ~ Texas Book Nook

“Dead Cold is not for those with weak hearts or nervous dispositions. Every page will have your heart pumping so much you’ll feel like you’re running a marathon. The story gets off to a cracking start in the prologue with high speed action from the first line.” ~ Reviewed by Darryl Greer for Readers’ Favorite

“Reading a Jennifer Chase novel and especially these Emily Stone novels reminds me of when James Patterson was at the top of his game. Jennifer’s writing has that same elusive quality and it makes for brilliant novels. Emily’s character is awesome and Dead Cold is not only my favorite novel in the series but also has the best conceived plot. Emily’s character was made for the big screen, I hope she makes it there because films of these books would be great.” ~ Amazon Reviewer

“Dead Cold is its own creature with a gritty sense of reality that makes it feel wholly authentic. Given Chase’s qualifications in serial crime and criminal profiling this shouldn’t come as a surprise and here she uses that knowledge too but as good as the characters and dialogue are, Dead Cold is at its best when it focuses on twisted nature of Stone’s latest assignment and its consequences” ~Book Viral

“Wow, this one really delivers in many areas. It is a thrilling novel with teeth. Yes, it took a bit of catching up to understand what was going on,  but once in the heart of it, Jennifer Chase has the reader hooked. As far as characters, plot, and flow, everything was very well developed and smooth.” ~ On A Reading Bender

 

 

 

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The Future of Forensics: 5 Cutting Edge Techniques

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Photo courtesy of null-byte.wonderhowto.com.

The innovators of forensic science consistently strive to be ahead of the curve. Advancements in this field are swift, and frequent. And that’s because – modern technology (in all facets) is moving at the speed of light.

So, in order for law enforcement to perform at high-levels, investigative techniques must outmatch the modern, tech savvy, criminal. Here are five modern techniques, which are on the cutting-edge of forensic science.

Fingerprint Time Tracing

For years, fingerprint analysis has been a staple of forensic investigations. One of the issues has always been eliminating benign fingerprints from the investigation. Basically, if a crime occurs in a high traffic area, there will be hundreds, if not thousands, of fingerprints in and around the crime scene.

So, a way to deal with this issue, is to be able to determine the exact time that each fingerprint was left at the scene. That process exists. Investigators can now quickly eliminate innocent people from the investigation. And focus their attention on the people who left fingerprints at the time of the crime.

Phenotyping

An interesting branch of science known as phenotyping allows forensic investigators to predict many aspects of a person’s genetic makeup. Particularly, their hair and eye color. With this method, law enforcement can determine a great deal about a potential suspect without that perp’s DNA profile even existing in any known database.

Once the police determine a suspects hair color and eye color, they thereby eliminate a significant portion of the suspect pool. Supposedly, this procedure is still in its early stages with respect to criminal investigations. But, based on the information that the forensic analysis could reveal, this technique will surely be helpful in narrowing down suspects and streamlining the investigation.

Analysis of Hair Bacteria

Whatever can aid law enforcement in uncovering the truth is a welcome addition to any criminal investigation. Sexual crimes are particularly demoralizing and heinous. And, for a plethora of reasons, these crimes are also some of the most difficult to investigate.

Now, investigators will have some much needed assistance. Forensic biologists have been analyzing the hair bacteria of perps. Hair contains microbes. So, when people engage in sexual behavior, their hair microbe populations intermingle.

Thus, if there are allegations of sexual misconduct. A quick analysis of each parties’ hair microbes will assist investigators in their quest for the truth. Although a match is not an absolute determination of guilt, it is one step closer towards finalizing the investigation.

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Photo courtesy of rsgplus.org.

Tattoo Analysis

Databases containing poor quality images coupled with suspects disguising their identities has made tattoo identification a pain point in criminal investigations. Because of the unreliability of tattoo identification, many offenders have alluded justice.

Recently, a new computer program has emerged with the goal of helping, not hindering, investigations that rely on tattoo identification to find the perp. This software application is highly efficient in matching tattoos with a suspect through a system which identifies and focuses on “essential common points.” Basically, the program is able to use poor quality surveillance or photo images by finding the key points of the tattoo, in a similar manner that fingerprint analysis is conducted.

This technique can also assist in distinguishing between gang members, who often wear the same tattoos. The program picks up the minute details of a tattoo, thereby enabling law enforcement to determine one specific perp from a pool of suspects that all sport the same tattoo.

Virtual Autopsy

There exist many reasons as to why relatives of murder victims do not want their loved ones to undergo an autopsy. Generally, the procedure is an invaluable tool in providing criminal investigators with vital information. Although the court could most likely force an autopsy, this situation will also result in animosity between investigators and the relatives of the victim.

But now, there is a way to perform a virtual, as opposed to a physical, autopsy. The procedure is extremely expensive, and thus, not widely used. But, as with any tech, the costs will most likely be reduced as the technology becomes more mainstream.

Essentially, this non-invasive technique generates a 3D model of the body after computer applications mine the appropriate data from the victim. Once all of the information has been acquired, the 3D model is created. A few benefits of this technique include the ability to acquire immediate second and third expert opinions. Also, all of the physical forensic evidence on the body is left untouched.

These techniques are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to forensic science innovations. Are there any recently developed procedures that you think belong on this list? Or, how about some non-existent, futuristic methods you’d like to see advanced?

***

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 JUST RELEASED! GRAB A COPY FOR ONLY 99CENTS DURING THE PROMOTIONAL BLOG TOUR!

DEAD COLD, An Emily Stone Thriller

DeadCold

 

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ANNOUNCEMENT: Pump Up Your Book Presents DEAD COLD Virtual Book Publicity Tour #PUYB #ASMSG

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Pump Up Your Book is pleased to bring you Jennifer Chase’s DEAD COLD Virtual Book Tour September 4 – November 30!

DEAD COLD is a PUYB Top Pick!

Beginning today, you will find interviews, reviews, guest posts, and spotlight features. I encourage you to check back frequently and discover new book blogs and more fun stuff about DEAD COLD.

Inside the Series

Title: DEAD COLD
Author: Jennifer Chase
Publisher: JEC Press
Pages: 326
Genre: Crime Thriller

BOOK BLURB:

What happens when one California community has a disturbing spike in homicides? It catapults cops into a deadly game of murder. Frozen human body parts hideously displayed at the crime scenes offers a horrifying interpretation that only a sadistic serial killer could design—and execute.

On the hunt for a complex serial killer, vigilante detective Emily Stone must face her most daring case yet. Stone’s proven top-notch profiling skills and forensic expertise may not be enough this time.

Young and ambitious, Detective Danny Starr, catches the homicide cases and discovers that it will test everything he knows about police work and the criminal mind. Can he handle these escalating cases or will the police department have to call in reinforcements—the FBI.

Emily Stone’s covert team pushes with extreme urgency to unravel the grisly clues, while keeping their identities hidden from the police. With one last-ditch effort, Stone dangles someone she loves as bait to draw out the killer. She then forces the killer out of their comfort zone with her partner Rick Lopez, and with help from a longtime friend Jordan Smith. A revelation of the serial killer’s identity leaves the team with volatile emotions that could destroy them.

The killer continues to taunt and expertly manipulate the police, as well as Stone’s team, and as they run out of time—they leave behind everyone and everything—in Dead Cold.

Buy on Amazon

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Tour Schedule

Monday, September 4

First Chapter Reveal & Tour Kick-Off at Pump Up Your Book

Tuesday, September 5

Guest Blogging at Blogging Authors

Wednesday, September 6

Book Featured at YouTube

Thursday, September 7

Book Review at Books, Reviews, ETC.

Friday, September 8

Interview at PUYB Virtual Book Club

*********

Monday, September 11

Book Review at The World As I See It

Tuesday, September 12

Guest Blogging at C.A. Milson’s Author Blog

Wednesday, September 13

Book Featured at Rising Indies United

Thursday, September 14

Book Featured at Readaholic

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Monday, September 18

Interview at Confessions of an Eccentric Bookaholic

Tuesday, September 19

Book Featured at The Writer’s Life

Thursday, September 21

Book Featured at Write and Take Flight

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Monday, September 25

Guest Blogging at The Story Behind the Book

Wednesday, September 27

Interview at The Dark Phantom

Friday, September 29

Book Review at Cheryl’s Book Nook

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Monday, October 2

Guest Blogging at Dear Reader Love Author

Tuesday, October 3

Interview at Broowaha

Wednesday, October 4

Guest Blogging at Mythical Books

Thursday, October 5

Guest Blogging at Lori’s Reading Corner

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Monday, October 9

First Chapter Feature at Read My First Chapter

Tuesday, October 10

Character Interview at Pimp That Character

Wednesday, October 11

Book Featured at Books, Dreams, Life

Thursday, October 12

Book Featured at T’s Stuff

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Monday, October 16

Book Featured at Book Bloggin’ Princess

Tuesday, October 17

Book Review at Good Family Reads

Book Review at Sefina Hawke’s Books

Wednesday, October 18

Book Featured at Rainy Day Reviews

Thursday, October 19

Book Featured at Readsalot

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Monday, October 23

Book Featured at A Title Wave

Tuesday, October 24

Guest Blogging at StoreyBook Reviews

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Monday, October 30

Book Review at Stormy Nights Reviewing & Bloggin’

Tuesday, October 31

Book Review at Books for Books

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Wednesday, November 1

Interview at The Writer’s Life

Thursday, November 2

Book Review at fuonlyknew

Friday, November 3

Interview at A Blue Million Books

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Monday, November 6

Interview at Literarily Speaking

Tuesday, November 7

Interview at The Pulp and the Mystery Shelf

Wednesday, November 8

Guest Blogging at YouTube

Thursday, November 9

Interview at Deal Sharing Aunt

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Monday, November 13

Interview at The Literary Nook

Tuesday, November 14

Interview at The Book Connection

Wednesday, November 15

Book Featured at Books Can Be Deadly

Thursday, November 16

Book Review at fundinmental

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Monday, November 20

Interview at I’m Shelf-ish

Tuesday, November 21

Book Featured at Book Cover Junkie

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Monday, November 27

Book Review at That’s What She’s Reading

Tuesday, November 28

Book Feature at Nuttin’ But Books

Thursday, November 30

Book Review at Teatime and Books

Interview at SheWrites

***

 

Please join me:

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 Author Blog: https://authorjenniferchase.com/

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Books: Compulsion  Dead Game  Dark Mind Dead Burn Dark Pursuit

Silent Partner  Screenwriting

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Pump Up Your Book Presents: EMILY STONE THRILLER SERIES Book Trailer Blitz #PUYB #ASMSG

BookTrailerBlitz

I’m excited to announce that beginning Monday, the Emily Stone Thriller Series film short will be touring several awesome book blogs during the entire month of September. This film project was significant to me because of my love for books and film. I wanted to make a book trailer that was a little bit different, in that it represented the theme of the Emily Stone Series and not just one book. I hope you’ll take a moment and click on the day of the posting to check out the trailer. You can also view the trailer on my blog. Be sure to watch full screen with the volume turned up!

***

Inside the Series

Title: EMILY STONE THRILLER SERIES
Author: Jennifer Chase
Publisher: JEC Press
Genre: Crime Thriller

BOOK BLURB:

Vigilante detective Emily Stone hunts serial killers and child abductors, covertly and under the law enforcement radar. She uses her fine-tuned skills of criminal profiling and forensic perceptiveness to locate predators that cops cannot or will not find. She is trained, she is tough, she is serious, and she gets results.

With Stone’s toughest cases yet, the killer immediately crosses her radar and sends her into the dark territory of a serial killer’s mind—to the point of no return.

Take your pick of any of the award-winning, stand-alone books and tag along with a serial killer hunter.

Amazon Author Page

 

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Tour Schedule

Monday, September 4

PUYB Virtual Book Club

Tuesday, September 5

Rainy Day Reviews

Wednesday, September 6

C.A. Milson’s Author Blog

Thursday, September 7

Mythical Books

Friday, September 8

Books, Reviews, ETC.

*********

Monday, September 11

fundinmental 

Tuesday, September 12

Stormy Nights Reviewing & Bloggin’

Wednesday, September 13

Cheryl’s Book Nook

Thursday, September 14

Sharing Links and Wisdom

Friday, September 15

The Writer’s Life

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Monday, September 18

CBY Book Club

Tuesday, September 19

Good Family Reads

Wednesday, September 20

Readaholic

Thursday, September 21

Bound 2 Escape

Nuttin’ But Books

Friday, September 22

T’s Stuff

********

Monday, September 25

The Dark Phantom Reviews

Tuesday, September 26

Books, Dreams, Life

Confessions of an Eccentric Bookaholic

Wednesday, September 27

Write and Take Flight

Thursday, September 28

StoreyBook Reviews

Friday, September 29

That’s What She’s Reading

 

***

Please join me:

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Twitter

 Author Blog: https://authorjenniferchase.com/

Book & Crime Talk:  http://blogtalkradio.com/jennifer-chase

Books: Compulsion  Dead Game  Dark Mind Dead Burn Dark Pursuit

Silent Partner  Screenwriting

Posted in Book Review, Emily Stone Thrillers | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Criminology: 9 Fascinating Theories

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Photo courtesy of sarvgyan.com.

The science of criminology studies one vital question – What makes criminals do what they do?

Although the question appears simple. The answers are exceptionally complex. For centuries, criminologists have grappled with the intricate and troubling relationship between criminals, their behavior and the overall societal impact.

Through observation and study, criminologists have developed a plethora of theories. Some of these modern theories are centered around the individual actor. While other contemporary theories focus their attention on society.

Here are 9 of these theories–

Critical Theory

The central tenant of this theory is simple. Society’s elite have created the laws. And, those who commit the crimes disagree with these laws (which were essentially enacted to control them).

Critical theorists believes that crime is a by-product of oppression. Most notably, the oppression of society’s less advantaged. Such as ethnic minorities and the poor.

The theory states that these oppressed sections of society suffer due to racism, sexism and classism. And, as a result, the laws that govern our society disproportionally impact these groups of people, and their struggle to remain competitive in a divided world.

Positivist Theory

The positivist theory holds that individuals do not make a conscious choice to commit a crime. Rather, the criminal actor is compelled to commit the crime due to something beyond their control. Such as low intelligence or societal rejection.

To that end, the theory states that these individuals generally do not possess the moral comprehension to grasp the wrongfulness of their actions in the same way a person of average intelligence could comprehend.  Essentially, the minds of these individuals have been negatively affected to the point where they are incapable of making a rational choice to obey the law.

Conflict Theory

This is a particularly interesting concept. Under this theory, laws only arise out of necessity due to the continuous conflict between societal classes – such as rich versus poor. Our laws only exist because of the innate tension that arises from the evident social and economic disparities found in society.

The theory purports that the entire criminal justice system exists to serve the affluent and powerful in their quest to control the poor and disenfranchised. The theory further suggests that the middle-class generally sides with the elite out of self-preservation and the goal of climbing the socio-economic ladder.

Choice Theory

A choice theorist believes that human beings decide whether to commit a crime by simply looking at the opportunity and weighing the benefit versus the punishment. Once that analysis is completed, the person then decides whether it is worth committing the crime.

This theory, based on a cost benefit analysis, simply holds that most people do not choose to go forth with the criminal action because of the ultimate deterrent – penal punishment.

Routine Activity Theory

This theory proposes that criminal activity is inevitable if the target is attractive enough. Basically, if a store is stocked with priceless jewels, criminals will eventually attempt to steal those items.

In turn, the only way to stop the criminality is to ensure measures are put in place to deter or stop the crime from occurring.

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Photo courtesy of couriermail.com.

Life Course Theory

Criminologists who subscribe to this theory believe that, in order to understand why a person committed a crime, one must understand the history of that individual. Under this approach, a person’s life must be examined from cultural, structural and societal contexts.

Once a person’s life history has been fully assessed, then it can be determined what prompted this person to commit their crime. This theory focuses on how an individual’s life unfolds in the context of their own personal history.

Social Control Theory

Expanding on the Routine Activity Theory, the Social Control Theory holds that society has a responsibility to maintain a degree of stability in the life of individuals. Essentially, society must create clear rules and responsibilities for its members, and design activities to prevent criminal behavior.

This theory is evident in impoverished areas. Under this theory, society bears some responsibility for ensuring that people are not so poor that crime is their only option.

Labeling Theory

The Labeling Theory is just that – a label. Those who are told they are criminals, will become criminals. This theory follows the adage that a person will eventually become what society believes them to be.

If a person is treated like a criminal their entire life, then they will naturally act according to this label.

Classical Theory

The Classical Theory believes that criminal actions are committed after an individual thinks about their actions. A criminal will only commit a crime if the result is to their advantage. The criminal is fully aware of the potential punishment, but has pursued the crime under their own free will.

This theory is rooted in John Locke’s “The Social Contract,” which states that we are all equals with mutual rights and duties. And that if a person commits a crime, they are breaking the unwritten social contract.

These are all exceptionally interesting theories concerning how our society functions. There seems to some truth to all of them. Is there a particular theory that strongly resonates with you?

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Silent Partner  Screenwriting

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DEAD COLD, An Emily Stone Thriller

DeadCold

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Tour Kick Off: DEAD COLD #crime #thriller

DeadCold_RABT

your kick off RABT

 

Crime ThrillerDeadCold

Date Published: July 2, 2017

Publisher: JEC Press

Every Emily Stone Thriller is a stand-along novel.

From the multi-award winning series:

What happens when one California community has a disturbing spike in homicides? It catapults cops into a deadly game of murder. Frozen human body parts hideously displayed at the crime scenes offers a horrifying interpretation that only a sadistic serial killer could design—and execute.

On the hunt for a complex serial killer, vigilante detective Emily Stone must face her most daring case yet. Stone’s proven top-notch profiling skills and forensic expertise may not be enough this time.

Young and ambitious, Detective Danny Starr, catches the homicide cases and discovers that it will test everything he knows about police work and the criminal mind. Can he handle these escalating cases or will the police department have to call in reinforcements—the FBI.

Emily Stone’s covert team pushes with extreme urgency to unravel the grisly clues, while keeping their identities hidden from the police. With one last-ditch effort, Stone dangles someone she loves as bait to draw out the killer. She then forces the killer out of their comfort zone with her partner Rick Lopez, and with help from a longtime friend Jordan Smith. A revelation of the serial killer’s identity leaves the team with volatile emotions that could destroy them.

The killer continues to taunt and expertly manipulate the police, as well as Stone’s team, and as they run out of time—they leave behind everyone and everything—in Dead Cold.

Buy on Amazon

Amazon Author Page

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Jennifer Chase is a multi award-winning author and consulting criminologist. She has authored eight crime fiction novels, including the multiple award-winning Emily Stone thriller series along with a screenwriting workbook.

Jennifer holds a Bachelor degree in police forensics and a Master’s degree in criminology. These academic pursuits developed out of her curiosity about the criminal mind as well as from her own experience with a violent sociopath, providing Jennifer with deep personal investment in every story she tells. In addition, she holds certifications in serial crime and criminal profiling. She is an affiliate member of the International Association of Forensic Criminologists and Associate Member of International Thriller Writers.

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Virtual Book Tour

August 18 – September 29

 

 Be sure to check out these great book/reading blogs:

 

August 18 – RABT Book Tours – Kick Off

August 19 – Chosen By You Book Club – Excerpt

August 20 – For Love of Books 4 – Spotlight

August 21 – A Life Through Books – Interview

August 22 – Book Addict –  Spotlight

August 23 – Celluloid Diaries – Guest Post

August 24 – Jazzy’s Book Reviews – Spotlight

August 25 – My Reading Addiction – Interview

August 26 – Tea Time and Books – Review

August 28 – Readsalot – Excerpt

August 29 – This and That Book Blog – Spotlight

August 30 – Evermore Books – Spotlight

August 31 – Silver Dagger Scriptorium – Spotlight

September 1 – Momma and Her Stories – Excerpt

September 3 – The Bookworm Chronicles – Guest Post

September 5 – Quiet Fury Books – Interview

September 6 – Bound 2 Escape – Spotlight

September 7 – Ctrl, Alt, Delete Books – Guest Post

September 8 – Mello and June – Spotlight

September 9 – The Avid Reader – Interview

September 10 – Morbid Romantic – Guest Post

September 11 – The Indie Express – Review

September 12 – Books, Dreams, Life – Spotlight

September 13 – Ashlynne Laynne – Spotlight

September 14 – Texas Book Nook – Review

September 15 – Stephanie’s Book Reviews – Spotlight

September 17 – Tea Time and Books – Spotlight

September 18 – On a Reading Bender – Review

September 19 – Two Heartbeats – Spotlight

September 20 – The Bookworm Lodge – Spotlight

September 21 – Novel News Network – Review

September 22 – Us Girls and a Book – Spotlight

September 24 – T’s Stuff – Spotlight

September 25 – Paranormal Romance and More – Interview

September 27 – Celebrating Authors – Spotlight

September 29 – RABT Reviews – Wrap Up

Reading Addiction Blog Tours

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Please join me:

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 Author Blog: https://authorjenniferchase.com/

Book & Crime Talk:  http://blogtalkradio.com/jennifer-chase

Books: Compulsion  Dead Game  Dark Mind Dead Burn Dark Pursuit

Silent Partner  Screenwriting

Body of the Crime

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