An Overview of the Texas Rangers: Elite Lone Star Law Enforcement

Photo courtesy fineartamerical.com

History of the Texas Rangers

Fabled by law-abiding Texans and feared by outlaws, the Texas Rangers are an elite law enforcement agency that has statewide investigative jurisdiction. Based in Austin, the Rangers have existed for almost 100 years after being founded by the original Texan himself – Stephen F. Austin.

Originally formed to patrol the Texas frontier and to guard early Texan settlers from hostile Native-American tribes, the Rangers, who were all volunteers, were reorganized after the state secured its independence from Mexico.

Thereafter, the volunteers were used to patrol the Texas-Mexico border, and to undertake special policing missions. Once a mission was accomplished, the volunteers were sent home until there was a new mission.

The group was officially disbanded by the US Government during the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era, but, however, once Texas was allowed to self-govern again, the Rangers were back in business. This time, the group was no longer comprised of volunteers, but rather, paid agents of the state.

Starting in 1935, the Rangers became an official law enforcement agency under the supervision of the Texas Department of Public Safety (Texas DPS).

Duties of the Texas Rangers

The Texas Rangers have led investigative responsibility on a statewide basis for the following: public corruption, border security operations, major crime investigations, officer involved shootings, and unsolved and serial crimes.

In addition to those duties, the Rangers assist in the following arenas.

Interagency Investigations and Suppression of Crime Assistance

Rangers assist local law enforcement in certain high-risk or high-profile situations on an as-needed basis. The assistance will either be requested by local authorities or assigned by the Texas DPS.

Generally, the need for Rangers arises when the local authorities are unable or unwilling to enforce the law due to extraordinary circumstances.

Organized Crime Unit

The Rangers coordinate with local, state, and federal agencies in gathering intelligence and suppressing organized crime, whether it be human trafficking, narcotics, or weapons.

Forensics

With superior forensic capabilities, the Rangers provide training and assistance to other law enforcement groups. Some of the areas where the Rangers excel are hypnosis, facial reconstruction and skillful artists who aid victims in rendering realistic depictions of suspects and crime scenes.

Internal Investigations and Intra-agency Training

When called upon by the Director of the Texas DPS, Rangers investigate alleged misconduct of other Texas law enforcement personnel, including incidents involving officer shootings. The Rangers also investigate incidents involving injuries to Texas law enforcement officers.

Additionally, the Rangers provide technical and specialized investigation and forensic training to various local, state, and federal agencies.

Security for Elected Officials

When the Texas Governor is traveling throughout the state, or when outside dignitaries are visiting Texas, the Rangers provide security detail to ensure the officials are safe in performing their duties.

Other elected officials are also afforded special protection by the Rangers during public events.

Photo courtesy texasranger.org

Becoming a Texas Ranger

The Rangers are an elite force, which means it is a highly selective law enforcement agency that has stringent standards. In order to join their ranks, an applicant must have at least eight years of experience with a Texas DPS law enforcement agency. The applicant’s experience must have been primarily focused on the investigation of major crimes. This force is so selective, that experience in the Military Police does not suffice.

If an applicant meets the minimum standards, the would-be Ranger must be a top scorer on the entrance exam and be successful in the subsequent oral interview. A position with the Rangers is so highly sought after, that recruiting is rarely done. Usually, hundreds of women and men will apply for only a handful of open positions.

Rangers are generally highly experienced officers, so much so that the current average age of an officer is 44 years old.

Interesting Stats

Currently, the Texas Ranger Division has around 235 full time employees, which includes 166 commissioned Rangers.

In 2019, the Rangers conducted a total of 2,235 investigations, which resulted in 993 felony and 56 misdemeanor arrests. As a result of last year’s investigations, the Rangers secured 562 confessions and 537 convictions. Interestingly, the Rangers conducted 9 hypnosis sessions during their investigations into criminal activity.

With respect to punishment, the 537 convictions led to grand total of 8,531 years in prison, including 3 death sentences and 76 life sentences.

Notable Texas Rangers

John Coffee Hays

A Tennessee man by birth, John Coffee Hays ventured to Texas in 1837, shortly after the new nation gained its independence from Mexico. By 23 years old, Hays was a Ranger Captain, who gained fame during the Mexican War of 1846-1848. During the war, he defended United States supply and communication lines from attacks by Mexican guerillas.

Fighting alongside US army troops, this Texas Ranger earned a national reputation for valor. After his time as a Ranger, Hays moved to California, where he helped establish the city of Oakland.

Ben McCulloch

Following his family friend Davy Crockett from Tennessee to Texas in 1835, Ben McCulloch joined Sam Houston’s army for the Battle of San Jacinto. Soon thereafter, McCulloch joined the Rangers and earned his stripes battling Comanches during the many skirmishes between Texans and local native tribes.

McCulloch quickly ascended in the ranks and was named John Coffee Hays’ first lieutenant. During the Mexican War, McCulloch was named the chief scout for General Zachary Taylor, who later became the 12th President of the US. McCulloch eventually headed west to California for the gold rush but returned to Texas shortly before the Civil War. He was killed in battle during the War.

John B. Jones

After serving with the Texas forces in the Civil War, John B. Jones was chosen to lead the newly formed Frontier Battalion. This new organization was comprised of six Ranger companies and was tasked with securing the frontier lands of Texas.

Under the guidance of Jones, the Rangers soon became a formidable state police force that helped bring peace to an otherwise chaotic period in Texas history, namely – the Reconstruction Era. One of Jones’ most famous accomplishments was when his group of Rangers thwarted a bank robbery by an infamous criminal named Sam Bass, who was killed during the ensuing gun battle. Jones was eventually named an adjutant General of the state of Texas.

The Texas Rangers are certainly a unique law enforcement agency, in that they have a storied history which has played a vital role in shaping the character of Texas. Do you know of law enforcement agencies in other states that have such an interesting past?

*

LAST GIRLS ALIVE

Detective Katie Scott Thriller is out!

Amazon: https://bit.ly/2Z8g6gM

Apple: https://apple.co/2W0Vhly

Kobo: https://bit.ly/3gHgkS1

Google: https://bit.ly/2Ck152u

Please join me:

Facebook

Twitter

Newsletter Sign-Up

*

Posted in law, Police | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

📚 Pump Up Your Book Presents LAST GIRLS ALIVE Virtual Book Publicity Tour #CrimeThriller

LAST GIRLS ALIVE are on tour for the rest of the year on some awesome book blogs. Check out below the days and blogs below.

LAST GIRLS ALIVE

Detective Katie Scott Thriller is out!

Amazon: https://bit.ly/2Z8g6gM

Apple: https://apple.co/2W0Vhly

Kobo: https://bit.ly/3gHgkS1

Google: https://bit.ly/2Ck152u

Please join me:

Facebook

Twitter

Newsletter Sign-Up

Blog Tour Highlights 2

Monday, November 2

Virtual Book Tour Kick Off at PUYB Virtual Book Club

Tuesday, November 3

Book Teaser Feature at YouTube

Wednesday, November 4

Book Review at Books for Books

Thursday, November 5

Book Review at Perfect at Midnight

Friday, November 6

Guest Blogging at Books Charming

**********

Monday, November 9

Interview at Books & Benches

Tuesday, November 10

Book Feature at Nuttin’ But Books

Wednesday, November 11

Book Review at Sefina Hawke’s Books

Book Feature at Dawn’s Reading Nook

Thursday, November 12

Interview at The Book Rack

**********

Monday, November 16

Book Feature at CBY Book Club

Tuesday, November 17

Book Feature at Beyond the Books

Wednesday, November 18

Book Feature at I’m All About Books

Friday, November 20

Book Review at The World As I See It

**********

Monday, November 23

Book Review at RhiReads

Tuesday, November 24

Interview at b for bookreview

Friday, November 27

Book Cover Review at Book Cover Junkie

**********

Tuesday, December 1

Interview at Hooked From Page One

Wednesday, December 2

Interview at The Pulp and Mystery Shelf

********

Monday, December 7

Interview at Jazzy Book Reviews

Tuesday, December 8

Book Feature at My Bookish Pleasures

Thursday, December 10

Book Review at The Faerie Review

*********

Monday, December 14

Book Teaser Feature at I’m Shelf-ish

Tuesday, December 15

Book Review & Interview at Pine Enshrined Reviews

Wednesday, December 16

Book Feature at Book Bloggin’ Princess

Thursday, December 17

Book Review at Amy’s Booket List

**********

Monday, December 21

First Chapter Review at Literarily Speaking

Tuesday, December 22

Book Video Teaser Spotlight at Blogging Authors

Wednesday, December 23

Book Feature at As the Page Turns

*********

Monday, December 28

5 Questions at Book Bloggin’ Princess

Thursday, December 31

Up Close & Personal at The Writer’s Life

Pump Up Your Book logo
Posted in Book Blog Tour, Last Girls Alive | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

NEW RELEASE: Last Girls Alive: A Detective Katie Scott Thriller #Bookouture #Crime

I’m very excited to announce that LAST GIRLS ALIVE, A Detective Katie Scott Thriller, has been released. This is Book 4, but it is also a stand alone.

Writing this book was quite the experience. I will be explaining more later, but for now, I began writing this book before the lock down and right at the time I bought a new house in Texas! Yes, I moved across the country as I was writing this book. Some interesting adventures I will write about soon. I think some of my experiences definitely worked as inspiration for a few chapters.

*

Totally loved this! The characters were amazing and drew me right in. This one cut deep on the emotional scale. Highly recommend this book.’ NetGalley reviewer, 5 stars

SYNOPSIS:

Her pale skin looks like porcelain in the early morning light. Her fragile arms bent and crooked like a broken doll. Half-buried in the muddy earth and surrounded by puddles of water lies the naked body of a beautiful young girl…

When Detective Katie Scott is called to the discovery of a young girl buried on the grounds of a former children’s home in Pine Valley, California, she’s hopeful it’s the end to a devastating cold case she’s been working on. No one has seen Candace Harlan since she ran away from Elm Hill Manor five years ago. Her death will be a tragedy, but it will also bring peace to those who miss her most. But the girl in the ground is not Candace.

The victim is almost identical to Candace in every way, but fear grips Katie as she takes in the black ink that decorates the girl’s back – a terrifying message tattooed on her skin after she drew her last breath.

Forcing down traumatic memories of losing her own parents, Katie is certain someone mistook this poor soul for Candace, and that this crumbling home for lost girls is at the heart of this terrible crime. She sets to work digging into the tragic history of the owners who lost so many children of their own and tracking down the last six residents and the staff who cared for them – but no one wants to talk, let alone remember.

The next day, a second girl’s body is found down by the creek at high water, the same words etched into her skin. Katie’s worst fear is confirmed: someone is picking off the last of the Elm Hill girls one by one. But what does the tattoo mean? And what monster would target these innocent girls who have already been through so much?

Katie must dig deep to confront her own fears and protect the vulnerable – but as the body count rises further, will there be anyone left to save?

An absolutely gripping, dark, and totally unputdownable serial killer thriller that will keep you racing through the pages all night long. Fans of Lisa Regan, Rachel Caine and Melinda Leigh will read in one sitting!

***

LAST GIRLS ALIVE

Detective Katie Scott Thriller is out!

Amazon: https://bit.ly/2Z8g6gM

Apple: https://apple.co/2W0Vhly

Kobo: https://bit.ly/3gHgkS1

Google: https://bit.ly/2Ck152u

Please join me:

Facebook

Twitter

Newsletter Sign-Up

 Author Blog: https://authorjenniferchase.com/

Book & Crime Talk:  http://blogtalkradio.com/jennifer-chase

Books: Compulsion   Dead Game   Dark Mind   Dead Burn   Dark Pursuit

Dead Cold  Scene of the Crime

Silent Partner   Body of the Crime   Screenwriting

Posted in Last Girls Alive | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

GOLD MEDAL WINNER! Flowers On Her Grave #Bookouture #Thriller

I’m so excited to announce that FLOWERS ON HER GRAVE has won the Gold Medal for Crime Fiction at Readers’ Favorite — In addition to hitting the USA Best Seller list!

This is the fourth installment for the Detective Katie Scott Series. I’ve been really excited about this book and it was a blast to write. I love incorporating interesting and stressful crime scenes for my heroine. When a grisly murder hits close to home, Katie must find creative ways to solve this murder!

SYNOPSIS:

On the floor, amongst the piles of freshly pressed laundry, lay the woman’s lifeless body, her pale yellow nightdress soaked in blood.
“I didn’t do it…” came a whisper from the corner of the room.

Detective Katie Scott has never seen two people more in love than her aunt and uncle as they danced on the decking the night of their wedding anniversary party. But the next morning, when Katie finds her aunt’s body sprawled across the floor, that perfect image is shattered forever.

All fingers point to Katie’s uncle, Pine Valley’s beloved sheriff and protector – after all, his prints are all over the antique knife found at the scene. Grieving, but certain of her uncle’s innocence, Katie is consigned to the cold case division after she’s discovered searching the house for clues. Does someone want to keep her as far away from this investigation as possible?

Ignoring warnings from her team, Katie digs into her uncle’s old case files and discovers photographs of the body of a young girl found tied to a tree after a hike in search of a rare flower. Her body is covered with the same unusual lacerations her aunt suffered. Katie knows it can’t be a coincidence, but every lead she follows takes her to a dead end.

Moments before the sheriff is arrested, Katie realises that a single piece of thread she found at the crime scene could be the missing link that will stitch old crimes to new. But how can she prove her uncle’s innocence without throwing herself directly into the line of fire? She doesn’t have a choice, he’s the only family she has left…

A totally jaw-dropping crime thriller with an ending you will never see coming! Perfect for anyone who adores Lisa Regan, Rachel Caine and Melinda Leigh.

Available in Kindle, Paperback, and AudioBook

Amz: http://ow.ly/AQ6W50yT2hJ

Apple Books: http://ow.ly/RuwK50yT2hL

Kobo: http://ow.ly/kAwY50yT2hK

Google Play: http://ow.ly/jVYw50yT2hM

***

Please join me:

Facebook

Twitter

Newsletter Sign-Up

 Author Blog: https://authorjenniferchase.com/

Book & Crime Talk:  http://blogtalkradio.com/jennifer-chase

Books: Compulsion   Dead Game   Dark Mind   Dead Burn   Dark Pursuit

Dead Cold  Scene of the Crime

Silent Partner   Body of the Crime   Screenwriting

Posted in Flowers on her Grave, Serial Killers | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Analyzing Crime Scene Characteristics #crimefiction #writing

SherlockHolmes

Crime scene characteristics are extremely important to all criminal investigations, especially homicides as well as all serial crimes.  After the forensic analysis of the physical evidence found at the crime scene is completed and the victimology is established, then the task of determining the specific characteristics of the crime scene begins.

This is the most interesting part of the investigative process of finding out who committed the crime and why.  It definitely piques my interest and it is one of the main reasons that I studied criminology and criminal justice.  I find it fascinating what makes people tick and why they chose to commit a crime in a specific way.

What were they thinking? 

What drove them?

Did they actually think they could get away with it? 

Why do they pick certain weapons or points of entry? 

Did they have other choices?

Crime scene characteristics are the overall distinguishing features of the crime scene left by the offender’s behavioral decisions toward the victim and the actual crime location.  It’s important to remember that every criminal offender leaves behind a crime scene that is distinct in its own way from all the others based on environmental influences, victim-offender interaction, and physical evidence left at the scene.

***

Based on the Edmond Locard’s Exchange Principle:

“Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves, even unconsciously, will serve as a silent witness against him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints, but his hair, the fibers from his clothes, the glass he breaks, the tool mark he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen he deposits or collects. All of these and more, bear mute witness against him. This is evidence that does not forget. It is not confused by the excitement of the moment. It is not absent because human witnesses are. It is factual evidence. Physical evidence cannot be wrong, it cannot perjure itself, it cannot be wholly absent. Only human failure to find it, study and understand it, can diminish its value. ”

—Paul L. Kirk. 1953. Crime investigation: physical evidence and the police laboratory. Interscience Publishers, Inc.: New York.

All objects in the universe are unique.  No two things that happen by chance ever happen in exactly the same way.  No two things are ever constructed or manufactured in exactly the same way.  No two things wear in exactly the same way.  No two things ever break in exactly the same way.”

This is a simple key observation for approaching a crime scene expressed by authors, Joe Nickell and John F. Fischer.  This is perhaps one of my favorite quotes.

***

investigation

Important crime scene characteristics examined by investigators or profilers:

Location Type (indoor, outdoor, vehicle, or underwater)

Point of Contact (primary, secondary intermediate, and dumpsite)

Location of Scene

Method of Approach (surprise, con, blitz)

Method of Attack

Use of Force

Method of Control (control oriented, verbal threat, controlling, sexual, lethal)

Weapons

Victim Resistance

Victim Compliance

All of these important aspects listed of the crime scene are evaluated and are generally reflective of the person(s) responsible for the crime.  In combination, the physical evidence, victimology, and the actual crime scene characteristics work together to unravel the investigative puzzle to begin to create the criminal profile and to catch those who are responsible.

***

Parkinglot_BW2

Research and Writing Tip:

If you are writing a detective story or police procedural, take some time to think about your crime scenes. How are you going to write them? How is the protagonist or the killer going to approach them? What are the key pieces of evidence they are going to discover? How are you going to piece it all together for the reader? Try sketching out the crime scene on a piece of paper first. This is one of my favorite tasks!  Or walk an area that inspired you to see it firsthand. Good luck!

***

LAST GIRLS ALIVE

Detective Katie Scott Thriller

Square Graphic - Last Girls Alive
***
Posted in Criminology, Writing | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Cover Reveal & Pre-Order for LAST GIRLS ALIVE #Bookouture

small_cover

It’s here! I can hardly believe that LAST GIRLS ALIVE, Detective Katie Scott Thriller, Book #4, is here for the cover reveal and Pre-order. Writing this book was somewhat of an adventure for me. I should say it was a real zinger. I was in the middle of moving across states and the Pandemic hit–what a combo. Driving 1,600 miles was quite the task as well as writing this book. I think some of my adventures along the way helped fuel the tension of this book. As I was editing the ending, I actually had to take a break to breathe. I became dizzy and my heart raced! I hope that you enjoy it too! But beware I warned you.

*

SYNOPSIS:

Half-buried in the muddy earth and surrounded by puddles of water lies the naked body of a beautiful young girl. Her pale skin looks like porcelain in the early morning light. Her fragile arms bent and crooked like a broken doll.

When Detective Katie Scott is called to the discovery of a young girl buried on the grounds of a former children’s home in Pine Valley, California, she’s hopeful it’s the end to a devastating cold case she’s been working on. No one has seen Candace Harlan since she ran away from Elm Hill Manor five years ago. Her death will be a tragedy, but it will also bring peace to those who miss her most. But the girl in the ground is not Candace.

The victim is almost identical to Candace in every way, but fear grips Katie as she takes in the black ink that decorates the girl’s back – a terrifying message tattooed on her skin after she drew her last breath.

Forcing down traumatic memories of losing her own parents, Katie is certain someone mistook this poor soul for Candace, and that this crumbling home for lost girls is at the heart of this terrible crime. She sets to work digging into the tragic history of the owners who lost so many children of their own and tracking down the last six residents and the staff who cared for them – but no one wants to talk, let alone remember.

The next day, as second girl’s body is found down by the creek at high water, the same words etched into her skin. Katie’s worst fear is confirmed: someone is picking off the last of the Elm Hill girls one by one. But what does the tattoo mean? And what monster would target these innocent girls who have already been through so much?

Katie must dig deep to confront her own fears and protect the vulnerable – but as the body count rises further, will there be anyone left to save?

An absolutely gripping, dark, and totally unputdownable serial killer thriller that will keep you racing through the pages all night long. Fans of Lisa Regan, Rachel Caine and Melinda Leigh will read in one sitting!

*

Square Graphic - Last Girls Alive
Posted in Last Girls Alive, Serial Killers | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

5 Writing Tips for Punching up Fight Scenes for any Genre

EmilyPunch2

I love reading and writing action-oriented stories. It doesn’t matter if it’s a movie or book—I love all the action with fights, weapons, car chases, martial arts, or an old-fashioned shootout. It may sound easy enough to write, but you might be surprised what it takes to make your fight scene really shine and get your readers excited.

If you’re incorporating some type of fight scene into your story of any genre, there are a few things that you should be aware of when prepping for it. It’s not just a one-two punch and that’s the end of the fight. It may look that easy, but I have a few tricks that help punch up the scene.

1. KNOW YOUR HUMAN ANATOMY

The first phase to writing a fight scene is to know and understand basic human anatomy. Visit a reputable website(s), borrow a book from the library, or purchase a book for research (highly recommended).

Did you know that you have 206 bones in your body? More than half of those bones are in your hands and feet. Truly amazing. Take a closer look at your own hands. Study the details of the bones, tendons, veins, and how your fingernails are shaped. Think about it and how it would pertain to your characters. The next time your characters are in a fist fight or searching for something to defend themselves with, there are many possible scenarios of what can happen to the body, specifically the hands and feet. Think about injuries, weaknesses, and strengths.

It’s not just about the bones. By having an understanding of where the major organs are located, such as the kidneys, solar plexus, liver, and the heart, it will make the scene much more believable.

2. UNDERSTAND WEAPONS

I don’t know how many times I’ve read a novel where the author doesn’t understand the difference between a revolver and semi-automatic gun. If you’re going to use a gun as the character’s weapon of choice, know everything about it—size, make, model, type of grip, how many bullets it holds, how to hold, and how the safety works.

Weapons aren’t just limited to guns. There is a whole host of weapons that could be used in a fight. Besides bare hands, the character can use hatchets, hammers, knives, swords, bats, and just about anything that a person could use to attack someone or defend themselves. I’ve used kitchen pots and pans to implements found in a garden and garage for my character’s fights. The list is endless. Whatever the weapon of choice in a fight—find out everything about it.

3. IDENTIFY SELF DEFENSE & OFFENSIVE MOVES

If you’ve ever taken a basic self-defense class or some type of martial arts, it will help you on a fundamental level to know where your characters should and shouldn’t stand during a fight. EmilyStone_workoutKnow the stances, both for defensive and offensive moves. How does your character stand? Where is the position of feet and hands? What are some of the realistic capabilities for your character?

You can watch movie fight sequences or pick up a book on various fighting techniques. Once you put your mind to it, there are almost limitless possibilities to your character’s fighting techniques. Whether your hero is a freestyle amateur or trained fighter, know your defensive and offensive moves.

4. DO YOUR RESEARCH

When you’re preparing to write a story, whether a book or script, make sure to add to the research list your fight scenes. I know that it may not sound like a big thing, but don’t drop the ball on understanding what you need to know for your fight scenes.

You can get as detailed as necessary, whatever the fight scene dictates. Plus, as an added bonus, whatever research you’ve done for one project can work for other stories as well. I think you’ll find that preparing for your fight scenes can be really fun as well as beneficial to the story.

5. SKETCH OUT SPECIFIC SCENES

This may seem extreme or even funny, but I cannot express to you how helpful it is to take a plain piece of paper and sketch out your fight scenes—nothing fancy just the basics. I do this for my crime scenes as well, when I have a scene with several people involved, detailed action scenes, and when I need the hero to kick some butt in a fight. Even if you’re not an outliner, it’s highly recommended that you outline a good fight scene. It’s actually fun and helps you to visually realize your scene. Try it. I promise it will help you make your fight scene jump off the page…

Fight

***

AVAILABLE NOW!!

FLOWERS ON HER GRAVE

Detective Katie Scott Book 3

A totally jaw-dropping crime thriller with an ending you will never see coming! Perfect for anyone who adores Lisa Regan, Rachel Caine and Melinda Leigh.

FOHG-5-1 hi

Available in Kindle, Paperback, and AudioBook

Amz: ow.ly/AQ6W50yT2hJ

Apple Books: ow.ly/RuwK50yT2hL

Kobo: ow.ly/kAwY50yT2hK

Google Play: ow.ly/jVYw50yT2hM

 

You can check out Detective Katie Scott Book 1 & Book 2

CoverReveal

 

 

HerLastWhisper_Cover

 

***

Please join me:

Facebook

Twitter

Newsletter Sign-Up

 Author Blog: https://authorjenniferchase.com/

Book & Crime Talk:  http://blogtalkradio.com/jennifer-chase

Books: Compulsion   Dead Game   Dark Mind   Dead Burn   Dark Pursuit

Dead Cold  Scene of the Crime

Silent Partner   Body of the Crime   Screenwriting

Posted in Writing | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment